John Watson, “On Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It”

Category : Psychology

When we speak of a science, we have in mind a logically body of knowledge that has resulted from certain methods attacking the problems presented by a particular subject-The methods of science are all, in the last resort, observational problems of science are all, in the last resort, analytical. matter of a given science may be indicated in two different ways: by a simple enumeration of objects, or by a characterization of the point of view from which the science in question regards common subject-matter of all science, namely, human experience

Source: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 53, No. 213 (Jan. – May,1914), pp. 1-17

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Solomon Asch, “Forming Impressions of Personality” 

We look at a person and immediately a certain impression of his character forms itself in us. A glance, a few spoken words are sufficient to tell us a story about a highly complex matter. We know that such impressions form with remarkable rapidity and with great ease. Subsequent observation may enrich or upset our first view, but we can no more prevent its rapid growth than we can avoid perceiving a given visual object or hearing a melody. We also know that this process, though often imperfect, is also at times extraordinarily sensitive.

Source: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology  41.3 (1946): 258-290

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Erich Fromm, “List of Presentations at the New School”

Category : Psychology

 The value of psychoanalysis is discussed in understanding moral, religious, political ideals and doctrines. Emphasis is placed on the question of whether recognition of the psychological and economic background if ideas leads to relativism or on the contrary to establishing their validity. The problem of the rational and irrational of value judgements is discussed. Ideals, ideologies and rationalizations. The traditional analysis of ideals in psychoanalysis and society. Psychoanalysis of love, justice, truth. Of Judeo-Christian religion; of fascist and democratic doctrines. Psychoanalysis and value judgements. The role of psychoanalysis in modern culture.

(compiled 1991)

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Erich Fromm, “Our Way of Life Makes Us Miserable”

Category : Psychology

Most Americans believe that our society of consumption-happy, fun-loving, jet-traveling people creates the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Contrary to this view, I believe that our present way of life leads to increasing anxiety, helplessness and, eventually, to the disintegration of our culture. I refuse to identify fun with pleasure, excitement with joy, busyness with happiness, or the faceless, buck-passing  “organization man” with an independent individual.

Source: The Saturday Evening Post 237.27 ( 25 July 1964): 8-10

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Mary Henle, “Gestalt Psychology and Gestalt Therapy”

Category : Psychology, Women

The purpose of this paper is to try to set the historical record straight while the history in question is still in the making. lt seeks to clarify the relations between gestalt therapy and Gestalt psychology, from which the therapy claims to derive. In considering gestalt therapy, I will confine myself to the work of Fritz Perls, the finder, as he calls himself, of this therapy (Perls 1969/1971:16), with emphasis on his later books.

Source: Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences  14: 23-32

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 Karen Horney, “Culture and Neurosis”

Category : Psychology, Women

In the psychoanalytic concept of neuroses a shift of emphasis has taken place: whereas originally interest was focused on the dramatic symptomatic picture, it is now being realized more and more that the real source of these psychic disorders lies in character disturbances, that the symptoms are a manifest result of conflicting character traits, and that without uncovering and straightening out the neurotic character structure we cannot cure a neurosis. When analyzing these character traits, in a great many cases one is struck by the observation that, in marked contrast to the divergency of the symptomatic pictures, character difficulties invariably center around the same basic conflicts.

Source: The American Sociological Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 1936

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Ann Snitow, “Refugees from Utopia: Remembering, Forgetting and the Making of the Feminist Memoir Project,”

Category : Psychology, Women

Rachel Blau DuPlessis and I, old friends from the Women’s Liberation Movement, discovered in the late eighties a shared indignation – and grief. The books about the sixties were beginning to come out. Histories mostly written by men who had been there, these books skirted the Women’s Liberation Movement with a finesse it was hard to quarrel with.

Source: Memory and the Future (NY: Palgrave McMillan, 2010), 141-157

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Max Wertheimer, “A Story of Three Days,” Documents of Gestalt Psychology

I shall report what happened in the course of three days to a good man who, facing the world situation, longed for a clarification of the fundamentals of freedom.

He saw: ideological devaluation of freedom had spread; freedom in the humane meaning of the word was proclaimed false, outworn, useless; and the radiance of the old idea was often exploited for other ends.

Source: Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961. Editor: Mary Henle; p. 52 – 64

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Max Wertheimer, “Gestalt Theory (With a Foreword by Kurt Riezler)”

Source: Social Research, 11:1/4  (1944) p.78

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“Forming Impressions of Personality”, Solomon E. Asch

Category : Psychology

Originally published in The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology  (1946, vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 258-290).

We look at a person and immediately a certain impression of his character forms itself in us. A glance, a few spoken words are sufficient to tell us a story about a highly complex matter. We know that such impressions form with remarkable rapidity and with great ease. Subsequent observation may enrich or upset our first view, but we can no more prevent its rapid growth than we can avoid perceiving a given visual object or hearing a melody. We also know that this process, though often imperfect, is also at times extraordinarily sensitive.

Read more here